The article discusses the dramatic history of the Tsaritsyno Park and museum-reserve. By the mid-2000s it had become one of Moscow’s iconic places and a zone where urban public culture was shaped. The authors trace the history of this architectural ensemble and park in terms of their role in сity culture and analyse changes in the historical culture of contemporary post-Soviet Moscow. The Tsaritsyno Park and museum exemplify these changes. An unfinished country residence of Catherine II, with a Grand Palace that had stood as a ruin for over 200 years, it has been radically renewed by the Moscow city authorities in what came to be labelled ‘fantasy restoration.’ The palace was finished and now serves as the core of the museum, organised according to a controversial historical policy. Tsaritsyno as a whole became a cultural oddity featuring historical attractions for the public, effectively an ‘eighteenth-century theme park’.
The western opening of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II, the formation of modern state in the German territorial states and their further development in the era of enlightened absolutism, Russia’s rise to great power and the emergence of the European “pentarchy”, diverse dynastic connections and cultural influences, the revolutionization of Europe by Napoleon and the defense of Napoleonic imperialism – it is a multifarious history in which German-Russian relations and contexts are integrated in the “long 18th century”. This volume illustrates these connections in 35 joint contributions by German and Russian historians. Short factual representations, supplemented by documents and images, shed light on the development of German-Russian interactions. The volume continues the three-part work “Germany-Russia: Stations of Common History, Places of Commemoration”, of which the volume on the 20th century was published earlier, and the next one – on the 19th century – will follow soon.
This study takes as its departing point the famous medical metaphor, used by Vcio in De mente heroica – that of the university as a hospital. Vico analyzes the medical dimension of heroism not only in De mente: it is discussed in detail in his funeral oration for Angela Cimmino and the preface to Pietro Belli's translation of the Fracastoro's Sifilide, but medical arguments are also spread all through his major works, De constantia and Scienza nuova. It is not a chance that Vico used medical arguments, dealing with a highly aporetical type of a hero – a virtuous woman. This perspective made it appropriate to compare two types of feminine heroes in Vico: Angela Cimmino as a Christian-Platonic hero of the third age of the history of mankind and «Lugrezia romana» as an extraordinary hero of the second. It has been shown, that Vico used opposite rhetorical strategies dealing with these two protagonists: while effacing and glossing over the Livian «Lucretia story», he mobilizes all the resources of his oratory in order to demonstrate the anthropological impossibility of the feminine hero in the age of the mente spiegata.
In this article I study medieval concepts of locus studii: how they were constructed, proclaimed and discussed by social actors before producing any real university space in the first Iberian higher schools. I mark out three general types of university spatial concepts in early juridical documents from the universities of Palencia, Salamanca, Lisbon-Coimbra and Lleida. The first group is connected to the universal locale of the studium: “light of science” and scholars’ privileges should extend over the whole Christian world. In political rhetoric “universal” locus studii (that was based on the authorities of the Pope or Emperor) was imitated by temporal sovereigns. The second type of loci studii is a city. Such conceptions (including civitas regia) considered urban space as integrated and homogeneous place of university activity leaving municipal law out of account. The third group described locus limitadus, a special university quarter. In the last part of my article I observe the use of spatial concepts in social and legal practices of Iberian medieval university corporations/
In this study, we set ourselves the goal of examining the figure of the female protagonist of Pieter Conlelisz. Hooft's historical tragedy Geeraerdt van Velsen (1613), Machtelt van Velsen, in its connection with the classical “archetypical rape victim” – Lucretia, transformed by Livy into an exemplum of republican virtus, feminine gloria, conjugal modestia and castitas.
In order to reconstruct the genealogy of Machiavelli’s Mandragola, this work was considered against the background of the Quattrocento dialogue and Renaissance novel, singling out common discursive elements and rhetorical strategies.
This article is focused on the interpretation by Vico of two particular categories of the Roman law: actio praescriptis verbis and fictio juris. Drawing on the legal humanist tradition and the 17th century juridical thought (Jacopo Cuiacio, Antoine Favre, Andrea Alciato, François Hotman, Peter Müller), Vico examines the ways of resolving the tension between jus civile and practical life in the ancient Roman jurisprudence. It has been shown that, whereas in case of actio praescriptis verbis this contradiction is overcome by appealing to the facticity as such independently from the sacred legal formulas, in that of fictio juris a kind of a modal shift takes place, actualizing the potential of the “als ob” logic.
This paper presents results from a collaborative research project investigating European scholars from the social sciences and humanities (SSH) who acted as public intellectuals during the 2014 European Parliament (EP) election campaign. We analyze op-ed contributions published in 21 broadsheet newspapers and in 9 EU member states, written by 195 authors who contributed 262 articles. The result is a portrait of European SSH scholars acting as public intellectuals. It shows a clear overrepresentation of male authors of advanced age. Academic reputation and public prestige show an east–west divide, with prominent authors prevalently publishing in renowned “West European” newspapers. Disciplinary background offers the most noticeable differentiations. Political scientists are most active, however, predominantly publishing in domestic settings. By contrast, economists reach out to a wider international audience and write explicitly on EU matters, while intervening sociologists and philosophers, as the most senior intellectuals, examine Europe in its wider international and historical context. Correspondence analysis comprising the content of public interventions, and key characteristics of all contributors, suggests that even during the EU electoral campaign, scholars from the SSH do not necessarily contribute to the rise of a European public sphere, as their interventions are more domestic than European in focus.
This book is the first to trace the origins and significance of positivism on a global scale. Taking their cues from Auguste Comte and John Stuart Mill, positivists pioneered a universal, experience-based culture of scientific inquiry for studying nature and society—a new science that would enlighten all of humankind. Positivists envisaged one world united by science, but their efforts spawned many. Uncovering these worlds of positivism, the volume ranges from India, the Ottoman Empire, and the Iberian Peninsula to Central Europe, Russia, and Brazil, examining positivism’s impact as one of the most far-reaching intellectual movements of the modern world. Positivists reinvented science, claiming it to be distinct from and superior to the humanities. They predicated political governance on their refashioned science of society, and as political activists, they sought and often failed to reconcile their universalism with the values of multiculturalism. Providing a genealogy of scientific governance that is sorely needed in an age of post-truth politics, this volume breaks new ground in the fields of intellectual and global history, the history of science, and philosophy.
Combining history of science and a history of universities with the new imperial history, Universities in Imperial Austria 1848–1918: A Social History of a Multilingual Space by Jan Surman analyzes the practice of scholarly migration and its lasting influence on the intellectual output in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire.
The Habsburg Empire and its successor states were home to developments that shaped Central Europe's scholarship well into the twentieth century. Universities became centers of both state- and nation-building, as well as of confessional resistance, placing scholars if not in conflict, then certainly at odds with the neutral international orientation of academe.
By going beyond national narratives, Surman reveals the Empire as a state with institutions divided by language but united by legislation, practices, and other influences. Such an approach allows readers a better view to how scholars turned gradually away from state-centric discourse to form distinct language communities after 1867; these influences affected scholarship, and by examining the scholarly record, Surman tracks the turn.
Drawing on archives in Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Ukraine, Surman analyzes the careers of several thousand scholars from the faculties of philosophy and medicine of a number of Habsburg universities, thus covering various moments in the history of the Empire for the widest view. Universities in Imperial Austria 1848–1918 focuses on the tension between the political and linguistic spaces scholars occupied and shows that this tension did not lead to a gradual dissolution of the monarchy’s academia, but rather to an ongoing development of new strategies to cope with the cultural and linguistic multitude.
In the article, the problems of historical memory and cultural landscapes are studied on the example of the Soviet Lviv of 1945-1990
The paper analyzes the conception of neoeternalism proposed by Eleonore Stump and Norman Kretzmann. This conception played an important role in the discussion about the nature of the divine eternality in the second half of the 20th century. Neoeternalism criticizes the conception of temporalism dominant at the time and largely determines vectors of further discussion of the concept. After a brief review of the context in which neoeternalism is emerged and discussion of the key points of the conception, the author seeks to determine, firstly, whether it is possible to talk about Stump and Kretzmann text ‘Eternity’ as a modern classics, and, secondly, to trace the role of reviews in the process of making it classics.
This article considers the applicability of the concept of backwardness which was one of the basic concepts of both Russian and Western historiography of prerevolutionary Russia until the late 20th century and resulted from the constant comparison of Russia with the conventional ‘West’. On the one hand, modern historiography is characterised by a ‘normalisation’ of Russian history, i.e. attempts to prove that, considered generally, Russian historical development was identical to that of Western Europe, and, on the other hand, complete refusal to compare Russia and the West due to Russia having an altogether different and unique model of historical development. However, both of these trends contradict the worldview Russians had between the 18th and early 20th centuries. The author characterises both trends as dead ends as the concept of Russia’s ‘normality’ makes it impossible to explain the events of the imperial era, while the other approach deprives a historian of one of the major research tools in studying the past. It results in an intellectual trap, and the author suggests that to solve this problem, scholars should create a new language of historical research and accumulate empirical data that would create a more complex and multidimensional image of the past.
This article studies the role of journal reviews in the professionalization of the humanities in Russia during the imperial period. Reviews from The Journal of the Ministry of National Education were chosen as sources, as this was the leading scholarly publication in Russia during the second half of the nineteenth century, publishing works on philology, history, philosophy, Eastern studies, and pedagogy. The author uncovers the fundamental criteria used by scholars to evaluate the work of their colleagues: objectivity in judgments, persuasiveness of critical conclusions, confirmation of original hypotheses with quotations from sources, bibliographical comprehensiveness, and so forth. The author concludes that Russian academic society of the nineteenth century saw journal reviews not as a formalized, secondary genre (as they are seen today), but as an effective mechanism for enhancing the quality of scholarly research.
The author of the article analyzes conditions of formation and process of designing of language for the Russian Art Studies at the end of XVIII – the first third of the XIX century. By means of this language of an assessment and the description idea of specifics of national (Russian) art was created in the XIX century. Still in research literature the main source of art criticism concepts was revealed in French-language letters of D.A. Golitsyn devoted to the Parisian exhibitions and modern works of art. These messages were studied in the Russian Academy of Arts and used for creation of textbooks according to the theory of art. In given article process of enrichment of this apprehended language by concepts of the German romanticism (Gothold Lessing and Johann Joachim Winckelmann), and also medico-topographical researches of the Russian Empire is analyzed. These two sources allowed the founder of the first art criticism magazine V. Grigorovich to formulate orders to artists on national subject, to form culture of vision of the audience and to prove existence in "the world of art" of "the Russian school".
This article presents the reconstruction of W. Ockham’s approach to the analysis of truth conditions of tensed propositions in order to clarify Ockham’s view and to present it in a systematic way. The article focuses on the chapter seven of the second book and chapter seventy two of the first book of the treatise Summa Logicae. One of the points that makes the analysis of Ockham‘s theory of tensed and modal propositions significant is the fact that he rejected the standard scholastic tool of the analysis of modal and tensed propositions — ampliation (ampliatio). Therefore, Ockham had to create his own theory that was based on his general ideas of supposition and predication that were primarily described by him in terms of the present tense. The main aim of this article is to examine why Ockham doesn’t use traditional tool for analysis of the truth-conditions in propositions about Future and Past. In the beginning of the article there is a textual reconstruction of the chapter seven, then there is an examination of the role of subject term and predication rules in this kind of propositions. Subsequently there is a general chart of the analysis of truth conditions in tensed propositions in Ockham’s view. In the article author claims that the ground of the rejection were Ockham’s ontological interests which were presented in his debate with W. Burley. Instead of traditional disjunction Ockham suggests detachment of the two senses of proposition. This idea leads to semantic controversy. Reference to the objects in past and future cannot be reduced to the reference to objects in present. Nominalism and mental language theory leads him to these semantic decisions