This article focuses on Ockham`s analysis of the truth conditions of past-tense, future-tense propositions and modal propositions. The main goal of this paper is to show the main similarities between them. In both cases Ockham distinguishes two ‘senses’ and suggests to create new type of propositions.
Nikolai Charushin's memoirs of his experience as a member of the revolutionary populist movement in Russia are familiar to historians, but A Generation of Revolutionaries provides a broader and more engaging look at the lives and relationships beyond these memoirs. It shows how, after years of incarceration, Charushin and friends thrived in Siberian exile, raising children and contributing to science and culture there. While Charushin's memoirs end with his return to european Russia, this sweeping biography follows this group as they engaged in Russia fin de siecle society, took part in the Russian revolution, and struggled in its aftermath. A Generation of Revolutionaries provides vibrant and deeply personal insights into the turbulent history of Russia from the Great Reforms to the era of Stalinism and beyond. In doing so, it tells the story of a remarkable circle of friends whose lives balanced love, family, and career with exile, imprisonment, and revolution.
History begins in a struggle producing two figures, Master and Slave. It ends in a “universal and homogeneous state”, an Empire. Revolution with its inevitable terror is the central point in this history. Kojève himself had experienced the Russian revolution and Civil War; in 1920 he left Russia for Germany, where till the end of 1923 he had witnessed the same strife between the “left” and the “right”. This experience is the basis of his view of history, his interpretation of the path from Mastery and Slavery to the figure of the Citizen, to universal recognition. The French revolution with the Jacobins’ terror and Napoleon’s Empire represent for him the model by which to understand not only the revolutions of the twentieth century, but of the entire course of history.
Paromita Chakrabarti and Yulia Gradskova discuss the Bakhtin Circle with five experts in the field: Caryl Emerson, university professor emeritus of Slavic languages and literatures, Princeton University; Lakshmi Bandlamudi, professor of psychology at LaGuardia Community College, City University of New York; Ken Hirschkop, professor of English at the University of Waterloo, Ontario; Craig Brandist, professor of cultural theory and intellectual history and director of the Bakhtin Centre, at the University of Sheffield; and Galin Tihanov, the George Steiner professor of comparative literature at Queen Mary University of London.
Lewis A. Coser, Gierige Institutionen. Soziologische Studien über totales Engagement. Aus dem Amerikanischen und mit einem Nachwort von Marianne Egger de Campo. Berlin: Suhrkamp 2015, 230 S.
The chapter is on Russian Empress Catherine the Great and her methods of administration.
This article focuses on fan fiction as a literary experience and especially on fan fiction readers’ receptive strategies. Methodologically, its approach is at the intersection of literary theory, theory of popular culture, and qualitative research into practices of communication within online communities. It characterizes fan fiction as a type of contemporary reading and writing. Taking as an example the Russian Harry Potter fan fiction community, the article poses a set of questions about the meanings and contexts of immersive reading and affective reading. The emotional reading of fan fiction communities is put into historical and theoretical context, with reference to researchers who analysed and criticized the dichotomy of rational and affective reading, or ‘enchantment’, in literary culture as one of the symptoms of modernity. The metaphor of ‘emotional landscapes of reading’ is used to theorize the reading strategies of fan fiction readers, and discussed through parallels with phenomenological theories of landscape. Among the ‘assemblage points of reading’ of fan fiction, specific elements are described, such as ‘selective reading’, ‘kink reading’, ‘first encounter with fan fiction texts’ and ‘unpredictability’.
A collection of essays on female rulers from different countries and historical epocks.
The article describes the adaptation in Russia of the new methods of teaching and research developed by German classical philologists. In the 1830s they were introduced to Russian universities by students and graduates returning from traineeships abroad and by visiting German scholars. Drawing on documents from archives of Kazan and Moscow universities as well as those of the Ministry of Education, the author shows how methods of teaching, reviewing, discussions in faculty council meetings and theses defenses influenced the quality of Russian classical philology.
The essays discusses changes in the practicies of honor and dishonor in 18th century Russia compared to the Muscovy period studied by Nancy Kollmann in her "By Honor Bound".
Nikolai Charushin and Vera Figner, both populists of the “1870s generation,” late in their lives played a role in the events of 1917, responding first with tempered enthusiasm, and then with trepidation over the growing chaos and polarization that led up to the Bolshevik revolution in October. Highly active in the events of that year, seventies generation populists were on the losing side, and have open been criticized for misreading the situation in the country, having naïve beliefs or hegemonic and patronizing attitudes about the peasantry and little experience with real world politics. In fact, if their full life stories are taken into account, and especially the two decades before 1970, when after being released from incarceration and exile to return to European Russia, they were fully immersed in the activities of the zemstvo, local politics in general and newspaper affairs. Their caution, moderate stance and gradualism were based not so much on inexperience as on long exposure to the peasantry and the needs of the countryside as well as rather prescient awareness of the potential for catastrophe in the situation at that time.
The present article makes an original and wide-ranging contribution to scholarship by examining, for the first time comprehensively and in the context of what the author defines as the "post-romantic syndrome," Hermann Broch's position vis-à-vis Romanticism. The focus is on Broch's trilogy The Sleepwalkers, but the article also considers the relevant essays on Hofmannsthal, on kitsch, and on myth and late style.
The scientific views and methodology of Julian Oksman (1895-1970), prominent Russian philologist, were shaping in pre- and revolutionary periods. This part of his biography remains substantially unknown. Using Oksman’s personal records and early literary works, this paper aims to explore his interpretation of the 1917 Revolution as well as its impact on his scientific research. The paper gives a double explanation of the problem: a retrospective one based on Oksman’s latest evidences on the revolution and a synchronistic one based on the letters to his wife in the 1910s. The paper also reveals the philosophical roots of Oksman’s methodology, raises the issue ‘Oksman and formalists,’ and studies his ideas in the context of ideological and methodological explorations of the revolutionary period.
Unlike the privatization of industry, which encountered no serious opposition after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, private ownership of the land immediately became an issue of contention between the “reform government” and the lobby of ex-Soviet agribusiness in Russia. For the first time in the post-Soviet parliament’s history, political forces collided during the passage of the farmland laws. The political context of these land reforms is described along with the various arguments voiced in parliamentary debates during the 1990s by political parties, farmer organizations and civil servants. The laws on agricultural property were finally adopted in the early 2000s owing to a depoliticization of issues related to the land and farming.
This study analyzes the conceptions carried out in the two most important works by an Italian physician, traveler and specialist on the history of medicine and natural history Prospero Alpini (1553 – 1616): De medicina Aegyptiorum (1591) and De medicina methodica (1611). Alpini's humanistic erudition in Ancient literature and his professional interest for the history of medicine enable him to reconstruct the doctrine of one of the Ancient Roman medical schools – the so-called school of the Methodists only scarcely known in his lifetime, and simultaneously to systematize the various accounts concerning the medical art in the Ottoman Egypt, provided by his trips to this country. The investigations on the Egyptian medicine make Alpini conclude that this version of the medical art can be traced back to the Roman Methodic school, while the history of the latter can be viewed as a gradual oblivion of its own foundations and degeneration into a set of purely practical skills, united on the basis of one statement — contraria contrariis curari, that itself springs from the fundamental principle of the Methodic sect. Alpini sets forth the political reasons of the degradation of the medical art, as well as other liberal arts and sciences in Egypt: first the bellicose and ignorant Mamlūk sultans usurped the power, than came the century-long Ottoman rule. The tyrannical government destroys the scientific institutions and depraves the morals of the subjects. The authority of the physician as well as of any other scientist (except for the faqīh) decreases, and the need for the serious, rational healing disappears. The 16th century Turk prefer the simple removal of symptoms without charging their patients with numerous prohibitions and painful procedures. Alpini detects in this approach the traces of the Methodic doctrine, striped of its philosophical foundations, stated that the Egyptians had neither possibility nor intention to embrace them. Thus, the historical-geographical treatise by Alpini can be set against the background of the Counter-Reformation political literature, presupposing as something taken for granted the inability of the Muslim nations to conduct a fully fledged political life and create an authentic respublica.
The paper considers Plato’s theory of language through the prism of the Timaeus’ metaphysics. It is argued that the apparent contradictions of Plato’s philosophy of language are the consequence of the two-fold nature of language, and that the metaphysical scheme proposed by Plato in the Timaeus can shed a light on his coherent theory of language. The linguo-metaphysical isomorphism of the Timaeus presupposes that (1) words and material elements have their own meaning and nature respectively; (2) they can be reduced to an infinite variety of amorphic sounds and receptacle; (3) the participation in truth is possible only at the level of narrative and universe. According to this scheme the universe (κόσμος), as well as any speech (λόγος), can be explained by the reduction to its constituent elements, but it will be only necessary explanation. Whereas for Plato, the true understanding of cosmos and logos is possible only on the level of the coherent unity of the whole, which represents the ideal paradigm in the best possible way.