This paper contributes to the studies of governmentalities of the late 20th century which are predominantly focused on the raise and on various national careers of neoliberal ideas and policy prescriptions, and have only rarely taken into account another powerful trend related to proliferation of information technologies. To complement available research on the role of computer and automation of decision-making in (neo)liberal economy, we’re revealing the existence of alternative technoscientific networks associated with different political projects. Based on archival materials and oral history interviews, we’re reconstructing and analyzing the story of the Franco-Soviet cooperation in the field of economic management, from the late 1950s to the 1980s, which was initially motivated by a common interest in promoting and perfecting planning methods, but was later recast as a dialogue dominated by purely technical issues of the information processing and communication, which finally became a part of the commercial strategy aiming to support the French and Eastern European computer industry. We’re showing that this dynamics was underpinned by various interests and visions of “scientific management” and of the role of computers and information technologies in managing national economy. Importantly, we found that both French and Soviet planners criticized an extensive use of formalization and automatization of managerial decisions–which contradicts widely accepted accounts of confluence between cybernetics and planning. However, under the Brezhnevian conservative turn–despite the rhetoric of the scientific-and-technological revolution–the computer was accepted as a means to preserve the existing social and political order.
The investigation is dedicated to the image of the medieval academic corporation that was constructed in its graduation processions. It is based on the statutes of the Portuguese university (1431).
This source contains detailed descriptions of required procedures and oaths, clothes, gifts etc. The first part analyzes origins and models of the Portuguese rituals, their relation with the symbolic traditions of other European universities (especially the studium of Bologna). Then it is observed how ‘global’ images of academic representation (that were used by various university corporations) correlated with social and cultural context of Portugal. The cases examined in the second part are: inclusion of the solemn graduation processions in the urban space of Lisbon, clothes as social representation established by the academic corporation in the statutes and by the Royal power (for example, in the Ordenações Afonsinas). So the study investigates how the concepts of corporation’s and estate’s honor were combined in the university status and symbolic practices.
The review of Natalia Mironova's book "The Great Epidemic: Typhus in Russia in the Early Years of Soviet Power".
Gregory Palamas has faced a problem of compatibility of two theological provisions within his doctrine based on the distinction of substance and non-created activities in God: these are, firstly, that God is unalterable, and, secondly, that He acts accordingly with time in relation to the created world, in particular, having made the created being. This background caused polemical argumentations on the possibility of signifying the divine activities as accident. The notion of accident here refers to the context ascending to the Peripatetic tradition, yet modified in writings of such Christian authors as Augustine, Cyril of Alexandria and John Damascene. Palamas addresses this topic in two of his works, Antirrh. c. Acind and Capita 150, written within the interval of five or six years. We see that Palamas is moving towards a more detailed notion of accident while considering its applicability to divine activities: this is him moving to the notion of inseparable accidents. But even in this sense, the accident, compliant to Palamas, must not be attributed to God and divine activities, though the Church tradition used to do this. Palamas finds a solution of this tension by pointing out that the notion of accident was used by the Church tradition in an improper sense. Meanwhile, his ally David Dishypatus takes a more subtle position: he admits a possibility to apply the notion of accident to the divine activities, but minding core restrictions of the human language, which speaks of God only within the horizon of human nature.
Memory narratives commonly include characters such as heroes (triumphant or fallen), martyrs, perpetrators, and victims. In recent years, the victim has become the central character in the dominant, western-centric, and globalized memory culture. A victim’s definition is problematic: few existing memory narratives include “ideal,” or innocent victims who suffered meaninglessly. The lines between victims and other characters in memory narratives are blurry in many cases, for instance, between a victim and a perpetrator. Using the case of Russian museums dedicated to the Soviet repressions, I study the problematic relation between victims and heroes, adding to the discussion of the victim character’s complexity. Often, victims of Soviet repressions are presented as both victims of political persecution and heroes who did not just suffer through their imprisonment but continued to live productive and creative lives. The resulting victim-hero character indicates that the category of a victim is too limiting and adds to calls for the theorization of victim taxonomy.
The book is the first attempt to reconstruct Plato’s philosophy of time in its connection with early Greek thought. Analyzing texts by ancient Greek poets, historians, rhetoricians, tragedians, and early Greek philosophers, the author traces the evolution of images and notions of time that were peculiar to the ancient Greek culture. A careful study of their genesis provides the basis for a reconstruction of Plato’s philosophy of time. The author argues that the conventional ‘time–eternity’ interpretive scheme adopted in the European philosophical tradition is inadequate for Plato’s theory and transforms it into a tripartite ‘eternity–time–instantaneousness’ scheme. Eternity characterizes the existence of the forms, while time pertains to the world of becoming. Instantaneousness is the third temporal status, proper to the receptacle, the lowest principle of Plato’s metaphysics. What distinguishes this book from other works on the subject is its emphasis on historical and conceptual analysis and a broad perspective combined with embedding Plato’s philosophy of time in the cultural context of the epoch.
The book is intended for researchers in the fields of Plato studies and metaphysics of time, philosophers and historians of philosophy, and anyone interested in ancient Greek philosophy and temporality issues.
The author uses the three criteria of academic classics proposed by I.M. Savelyeva and A.V. Poletaev and analyzes the factors, which made it possible to define the works by a historian S.B. Veselovskiy (1876–1952) as classical ones. The scientometric database Google Scholar (Google Academy) reveals the dynamics and nature of the researchers' enquiries for the works by S.B. Veselovskiy. The reasons for the formation of his works as classical are considered: internal (academic discourse of the researcher) and external (circumstances of publication of his works since the 1960s; actualization of works in Soviet and post-Soviet historiography). Special attention is paid to the perception of academic heritage and personality of S.B. Veselovskiy in the memory of historians of the Soviet era.
The monograph is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in the theory of humanities and social theory.
This monograph is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in social sciences and theory of humanities.
This book is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in social sciences and theory of humanities.
The article presents materials characterizing the state of health care system in the USSR in 1960—1980s. The main attention is paid to the complex of unresolved problems that had negative impact on capacity and quality of population medical care. The conclusions concerning factors weakening state health care system during last decades of the USSR existence are expressed and justified.
The article analyzes negative changes in the USSR population health in the era of stagnation. These changes are traced on the basis of statistical indices of physical development, morbidity of infectious and mental diseases, mortality and life expectancy. The mentioned data are compared with indices of ecological pollution, drinking water and foodstuff quality. The study results are explained by political decisions on reclamation of unsettled territories, developing of all-Union constructions, (anti)alcohol campaigns.
Utilizing the minutes of preparations of a manuscript textbook on the history of medicine (1948-1953), the authors reconstruct how it was decided to depict the history of world and Russian medicine; in so doing sacralizing the Soviet state and wildly overstating its care for the health of Soviet people. The archival documents allowed the authors of the article to show how the aspirations and interests of the medical elite in the sacralization of their own role encouraged historians of medicine to develop not a scientific, but an epic version of the past and to repress other versions through political accusations and condemnation of colleagues. The textbook, which had been created and discussed for a long time in the 1940s, was never published. Nevertheless, the authors' reconstruction of its aborted conception made it possible to reveal its enduring formulations in later Soviet and even present-day textbooks, and enduring capacity to shape a Soviet style historical imagination in doctors.
Conducted from 1996 to 2002, the project Translation Literature in the Social Sciences changed the face of post-Soviet Russian academia. Not only did it result in the translation of more than 400 key publications in human and social sciences, but it also created a community of scholars and translators specialising in social sciences and humanities, many of whom have continued shaping Russian academic landscape until today. This chapter discusses the aims, scope and results of the translation project, as well as the ramifications that it had for contemporary academia. Particular attention is paid to the transformation and changing praxis of translations from Soviet to Post-Soviet Russia.
Throughout the 20th century, cinema has played, and, to some extent, continues to play a key role in shaping the social imagination and anthropology of modern human. Nevertheless, as a review of English scholarly literature shows, cinema, unlike art and music, remains a marginal subject of analysis for sociologists. The article attempts to consider the state of sociological reflection on cinema in the context of the cultural turn in sociology in both the international and national contexts. By reconstructing the history of the interaction between sociology, film studies, and cultural studies, the author not only proves the scarcity of interest among sociologists in the analysis of cinema, but also discusses the ways by which sociological perspectives were involved in film research at the turn of the 20th–21st centuries, and the potential of the latter for the study of social imagination. A survey of communities of Soviet sci-fi cinema fans demonstrates one possible way of developing of the sociologically oriented program of cinema studies.
This paper analyzes the mechanisms of creating a symbolic connection between several generations of protesters in the late USSR and in Putin’s Russia. Based on an analysis of the periodical press, data on human-rights violations during public protests, and published sources on the history of Soviet dissidents, the article traces how and for what purposes protesters in the 2000s and 2010s used the symbolic and practical legacy of Soviet dissidents, what additional meanings of protest were actualized with these linkages, and how references to specific spaces of protest actions transformed the content and form of public protests. Using Charles Tilly’s concept of “repertoires of contention,” I argue that references to the dissidents’ legacy were not limited to the discursive level of repeating slogans but included various public actions that memorialized and/or reconsidered the Soviet dissidents’ tradition of contesting the state monopoly over public space.
Conference proceedings of the V. annual German conference at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, April 17, 2019.