This paper contributes to the studies of governmentalities of the late 20th century which are predominantly focused on the raise and on various national careers of neoliberal ideas and policy prescriptions, and have only rarely taken into account another powerful trend related to proliferation of information technologies. To complement available research on the role of computer and automation of decision-making in (neo)liberal economy, we’re revealing the existence of alternative technoscientific networks associated with different political projects. Based on archival materials and oral history interviews, we’re reconstructing and analyzing the story of the Franco-Soviet cooperation in the field of economic management, from the late 1950s to the 1980s, which was initially motivated by a common interest in promoting and perfecting planning methods, but was later recast as a dialogue dominated by purely technical issues of the information processing and communication, which finally became a part of the commercial strategy aiming to support the French and Eastern European computer industry. We’re showing that this dynamics was underpinned by various interests and visions of “scientific management” and of the role of computers and information technologies in managing national economy. Importantly, we found that both French and Soviet planners criticized an extensive use of formalization and automatization of managerial decisions–which contradicts widely accepted accounts of confluence between cybernetics and planning. However, under the Brezhnevian conservative turn–despite the rhetoric of the scientific-and-technological revolution–the computer was accepted as a means to preserve the existing social and political order.
The investigation is dedicated to the image of the medieval academic corporation that was constructed in its graduation processions. It is based on the statutes of the Portuguese university (1431).
This source contains detailed descriptions of required procedures and oaths, clothes, gifts etc. The first part analyzes origins and models of the Portuguese rituals, their relation with the symbolic traditions of other European universities (especially the studium of Bologna). Then it is observed how ‘global’ images of academic representation (that were used by various university corporations) correlated with social and cultural context of Portugal. The cases examined in the second part are: inclusion of the solemn graduation processions in the urban space of Lisbon, clothes as social representation established by the academic corporation in the statutes and by the Royal power (for example, in the Ordenações Afonsinas). So the study investigates how the concepts of corporation’s and estate’s honor were combined in the university status and symbolic practices.
Gregory Palamas has faced a problem of compatibility of two theological provisions within his doctrine based on the distinction of substance and non-created activities in God: these are, firstly, that God is unalterable, and, secondly, that He acts accordingly with time in relation to the created world, in particular, having made the created being. This background caused polemical argumentations on the possibility of signifying the divine activities as accident. The notion of accident here refers to the context ascending to the Peripatetic tradition, yet modified in writings of such Christian authors as Augustine, Cyril of Alexandria and John Damascene. Palamas addresses this topic in two of his works, Antirrh. c. Acind and Capita 150, written within the interval of five or six years. We see that Palamas is moving towards a more detailed notion of accident while considering its applicability to divine activities: this is him moving to the notion of inseparable accidents. But even in this sense, the accident, compliant to Palamas, must not be attributed to God and divine activities, though the Church tradition used to do this. Palamas finds a solution of this tension by pointing out that the notion of accident was used by the Church tradition in an improper sense. Meanwhile, his ally David Dishypatus takes a more subtle position: he admits a possibility to apply the notion of accident to the divine activities, but minding core restrictions of the human language, which speaks of God only within the horizon of human nature.
The book is the first attempt to reconstruct Plato’s philosophy of time in its connection with early Greek thought. Analyzing texts by ancient Greek poets, historians, rhetoricians, tragedians, and early Greek philosophers, the author traces the evolution of images and notions of time that were peculiar to the ancient Greek culture. A careful study of their genesis provides the basis for a reconstruction of Plato’s philosophy of time. The author argues that the conventional ‘time–eternity’ interpretive scheme adopted in the European philosophical tradition is inadequate for Plato’s theory and transforms it into a tripartite ‘eternity–time–instantaneousness’ scheme. Eternity characterizes the existence of the forms, while time pertains to the world of becoming. Instantaneousness is the third temporal status, proper to the receptacle, the lowest principle of Plato’s metaphysics. What distinguishes this book from other works on the subject is its emphasis on historical and conceptual analysis and a broad perspective combined with embedding Plato’s philosophy of time in the cultural context of the epoch.
The book is intended for researchers in the fields of Plato studies and metaphysics of time, philosophers and historians of philosophy, and anyone interested in ancient Greek philosophy and temporality issues.
The monograph is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in the theory of humanities and social theory.
This monograph is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in social sciences and theory of humanities.
This book is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in social sciences and theory of humanities.
The article presents materials characterizing the state of health care system in the USSR in 1960—1980s. The main attention is paid to the complex of unresolved problems that had negative impact on capacity and quality of population medical care. The conclusions concerning factors weakening state health care system during last decades of the USSR existence are expressed and justified.
Utilizing the minutes of preparations of a manuscript textbook on the history of medicine (1948-1953), the authors reconstruct how it was decided to depict the history of world and Russian medicine; in so doing sacralizing the Soviet state and wildly overstating its care for the health of Soviet people. The archival documents allowed the authors of the article to show how the aspirations and interests of the medical elite in the sacralization of their own role encouraged historians of medicine to develop not a scientific, but an epic version of the past and to repress other versions through political accusations and condemnation of colleagues. The textbook, which had been created and discussed for a long time in the 1940s, was never published. Nevertheless, the authors' reconstruction of its aborted conception made it possible to reveal its enduring formulations in later Soviet and even present-day textbooks, and enduring capacity to shape a Soviet style historical imagination in doctors.
Conducted from 1996 to 2002, the project Translation Literature in the Social Sciences changed the face of post-Soviet Russian academia. Not only did it result in the translation of more than 400 key publications in human and social sciences, but it also created a community of scholars and translators specialising in social sciences and humanities, many of whom have continued shaping Russian academic landscape until today. This chapter discusses the aims, scope and results of the translation project, as well as the ramifications that it had for contemporary academia. Particular attention is paid to the transformation and changing praxis of translations from Soviet to Post-Soviet Russia.
This paper analyzes the mechanisms of creating a symbolic connection between several generations of protesters in the late USSR and in Putin’s Russia. Based on an analysis of the periodical press, data on human-rights violations during public protests, and published sources on the history of Soviet dissidents, the article traces how and for what purposes protesters in the 2000s and 2010s used the symbolic and practical legacy of Soviet dissidents, what additional meanings of protest were actualized with these linkages, and how references to specific spaces of protest actions transformed the content and form of public protests. Using Charles Tilly’s concept of “repertoires of contention,” I argue that references to the dissidents’ legacy were not limited to the discursive level of repeating slogans but included various public actions that memorialized and/or reconsidered the Soviet dissidents’ tradition of contesting the state monopoly over public space.
Conference proceedings of the V. annual German conference at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, April 17, 2019.
As the main tasks of the 18th-century Russian medicine were the support of the army and navy, and the protection of the empire from massive diseases, the regular research of local medical phenomena and resources was not clearly distinguished. The present paper attempts to reveal the ways in which medical knowledge was produced and communicated on the example of crude oil exploration by a Prussian physician in Russian service, Johann Jacob Lerche (1708–1780). Despite the fact that both his wide-ranging medical activities in different areas of the Russian empire and his extensive written heritage drew only fragmentary attention from scholars, they reflect the physician’s expertise in the research of naturalia which he manifested while performing his professional duties. Crude oil was one of the most remarkable mineral wonders of the Pre-Caspian region which Lerche visited twice (1732–1735, 1745–1747). On the basis of his three published accounts, which contain information on petroleum qualities and its practical application, the author investigates how the Baku crude oil, a natural object, was reinvented as a medical resource by an 18th-century state physician in the Russian empire. It is done through the consideration of the processes of world discoveries in the Age of Enlightenment, and the indigenous practices of the oil use. Finally, the significance of the author’s professional position as a state physician appears to have influenced the argumentation of curative qualities of petroleum and the advantages of its location.
Throughout the nineteenth century, language sciences played an eminently political role in Central Europe. They helped to produce or lessen differences, to create narratives of exceptionality or togetherness, or to underscore cultural historicity. The Habsburg Monarchy, where manifold languages were in use, was linguists’ preferred field of inquiry. Often migrating throughout the Monarchy and thus dealing in various ways with Central European cultural diversity, these linguists could thereby easily become political intellectuals. While many of them did indeed openly engage in political activity, I will deliberately leave those cases aside and concentrate on linguists who continued to perceive themselves as scholars; a position Johannes Feichtinger, referring to Pierre Bourdieu, called “autonomously engaged” (Feichtinger 2010, 35–36). As I will argue, however, the factor of scholars entrapped in the culturalizing monarchy, where language, history and finally ethnicity began to shape scholarly inquiry, had a pronounced influence on the production and transformation of language knowledge and the ways in which it became intertwined with politics.
The review of the book by I. Campbell "Knowledge and the Ends of Empire: Kazak Intermediaries and Russian Rule on the Steppe".
This paper focuses on the Tsoi Wall in Moscow, an iconic place on Russia’s music map that appeared in Moscow in 1990 in memory of the cult Soviet rock musician Viktor Tsoi, to develop a framework for studying non-auratic music place—that is, places that are not connected with the biographies of musicians or musical events, but emerge directly from the experiences of visitors and fans. These places are constantly negotiated and only lightly formalized, but are nevertheless enduring. To analyze this type of place, we propose a concept of institutionalization “in becoming.” The case of the Tsoi Wall reveals that light formalization (vague and changing positions and rules, and openness to different interpretations of a place and ways of using it) leads to the recognition of the place as a significant one and to its popularity. We put institutionalization “in becoming” in a wider context and juxtapose it with well-studied musical places in Europe and the US.
The paper is dedicated to the reconstruction of Alexander Piatigorsky’s observational philosophy within the context of the confrontation between two versions of the transcendental project of man-in-the-world. The first project accentuates the invariant functional organization of cognitive systems by abstracting from bodily, affective and phenomenological realization of this organization. On the contrary, the second project emphasizes the phenomenological perspective of the experience of givenness, always already dependent on whose experience this is and how the cognitive system living this experience is organized. The first project can be called functionalist, and the second – phenomenological. Ontological and epistemological positions of these projects are specified in the problem of the observer, its status in the world and cognitive practice. The observational philosophy possesses an intermediate position between these two programs since, aiming to disclose the invariant structure of observation, it proceeds from the factual experience of the embodied subject placed into the situation of self-observation and observation of the other subject. It is concluded that Piatigorsky’s philosophy borrows from the functionalist project the commitment to self-objectivation (observation of thinking is always the observation of the other thinking) and rejection from the spatiotemporal localization of cognitive activity (thinking is always “none’s” and does not belong to any kind of individual). With the phenomenological project of enactivism Piatigorsky shares the aspiration to disclose the invariant cognitive structures during the empirical observation of the real enactment of cognitive agency (the organization of cognitive systems is the same while its structural realizations are multiple), abandonment of substantialization of the self (“none’s” thinking is considered as the emergent effect of interaction among two or several observers – the autopoietic systems) as well as the refusal from theoretical formulation of the problem of consciousness (observational philosophy develops metatheoretical prolegomena to theory of consciousness, which in turn is considered as lived and essentially practical in phenomenology).