The article is focused on the analysis of historiography of epidemics in the history of the European overseas empires. Anti-epidemic campaigns are viewed as an integral part of the medical administration of imperial territories. Changing perceptions of historians regarding the aims, content and consequences of the anti-epidemic campaigns in the colonies form the main concern of the article.
The edited book contains selected articles that were presented at the conference "Welt and Wissenschaft" at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow 2018, April 19.
The paper examines in some detail Ficino's relation to concept of λόγοι σπερματικοί, literally ‘seminal reasons’, discussed in his Platonic and Scholastic sources. For instance, Ficino uses such terms as semina rerum, semina formarum, rationes seminales, seminarium mundi, ratio seminaria mundi to indicate the links between species in matter and ideas in mind. Ficino supposes that the World-Soul, producing specific forms and powers of lower things, makes them through her own seminal reasons, which remain in touch with celestial and supercelestial entities. Probably, it is Plotinus who legitimates Ficino’s use of the concept of seminal reasons although, historically, it is the concept of Stoicism. Employing ‘seeds’ as a metaphor for ideas, Plotinus criticizes strongly the Stoic concept of seminal reasons, according to which seminal formative principles are corporeal and immanent to the things. Ficino’s use of embryological metaphors and direct analogies between the action of generating force in the human body and in the ‘body’ of the world serves to explain how a purely intelligible essence (the World-Soul) produces material things. In the paper, I argue that the ‘seminal reasons’ as metaphysical intermediaries should be related to other well-known metaphysical intermediaries in Ficino’s philosophy (spiritus, daemones)
The aim of the article is to reveal new concepts and models, systems of argumentation, rethinking of main categories, orientation to new social disciplines and self-reflection in different directions of the world history in the 21st century.
In the 1990s world history relying on the achievements of global and postcolonial studies has been radically transformed and, after several decades of existence in the backyards of historical science, has regained its leading position. Studies conducted in the framework of world history have established new directions that are the result of critical and postmodern revolutions in philosophy (postcolonial criticism, first of all) and rely on a number of concepts and approaches developed in the course of anthropological, linguistic and cultural twists and turns.
Firstly, we mean global and transnational history, offering ways to construct a universal non-Eurocentric world. Secondly, world history, analyzing interactions between world systems and local civilizations (cultural transfer), and complex networks of mutual influences of various historical phenomena. Third, the international history of the formation and development of various international institutions. Fourth, the Big history, which claims not only to encompass "the whole world", but also "all the time", that is, a time beyond the social - "time of the Earth."
The attention of historians is switched to the study of social trajectories, cultural exchanges, multiple identities; there is a fundamental rejection of dualistic oppositions (Europe / third world, metropoly / colony, center / periphery, city / village, modernization / tradition). All variants of the "new world history" are alliances of history with different disciplines, up to the attempts at integration with biology, geology, and cosmology.
The next transformation of the historical science in the 2000s and especially in the last decade is unusually favorable precisely for the development of world history. Firstly, it is the renewed need for broad contexts and large narratives. Secondly, the "spatial turn" in the social sciences and in historiography in particular. Thirdly, the awakened interest of historians in the metaphysics of time and the idea of multitemporality.
The article considers the specificity of urban memory and memory places of cultural heroes in the modern Russian cities. The authors analyze nonconventional memory sites that arise spontaneously and are supported by different agents and communities. The article is focused on the places dedicated to the memory of Viktor Tsoi, leader of the famous Leningrad rock band “Kino” in Moscow and Saint-Petersburg.
This article examines the process of history scientization experience in the USSR based on Porshnev’s concept of international affairs in the period of the Thirty Years' War. The author traces the connection between this concept and structuralism, as well as the roll-call between its historiosophy and T. Hobbes' (the problem of the emergence of sociality), C. Schmitt's (the idea of "friend-enemy") and R. Aron's (sociology of international relationships) theories. In the course of the analysis of the argumentative structure of natural-science implication, B.F. Porshnev's theory (concepts of "synchrony" and "diachrony" of the historical process, the concept of "historical experiment"), which is characterized as axiomatic, the aurhor concludes that Porshnev's persistent desire for scientific rigor and rigidity of the conceptual-categorical apparatus leads to the opposite effect - the metaphorization of language.
The main concern of the article is the ways plague was explored and conceptualised by Russian doctors in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Medical theories and epistemologies are accessed in comparison with those employed during the pre-bacteriological era as well as with the European medical ideas of the period.
Corpus Platonicum is one of our primary evidence on the history of Greek magic in the classical period and with other sources it gives the knowledge on those who practiced magic-working (magoi, goetes, pharmakeis and epodoi). Plato is well known for his critics of magicians in the Republic and the Laws yet picturing Socrates as a magician and enchanter in other dialogues. I will address this apparent inconsistency by examining pharmakon (drug) and epode (incantation) as two magical terms that we know already from pre-platonic texts, while in the dialogues Plato uses them for depicting a variety of Socratic philosophical practices: in the Charmides Socrates presented as a follower of Thracian medical-magical practitioner, in the Theaetetus he appears as a midwife of the souls, in the Phaedo as a prophet and a servant of Apollo and in the Republic as a lover of poetry who places his own incantation in opposition to poetry’s mimetic charm. As it follows, the magic of Socrates is a counter-magic to the bewitchment and jugglery of a sophistry and mimetic poetry. By enchanting pharmakon with epode Socrates neutralizes the risk of pharmakon being dangerous drug: a model for a method that Socrates is famed for yet expressed in the words of magic.
The article considers the major approaches towards the integration of philosophical and scientific perspectives on the nature and functioning of subjective consciousness. The project of naturalization of phenomenology is considered as an account of methodological unification of cognitive science and philosophy based on first-person perspective. This alliance is generally thought as an attempt to incorporate the explanatory models of phenomenology into the natural scientific worldview. The proponents of this approach, such as F. Varela, confirm that it can overcome the explanatory gap between the subjective first-person qualitative phenomenological data and third-person neurophysiological data, or at least it can contribute to the project of scientifically informed philosophy of mind, as in S. Gallagher’s front load phenomenology. But is it really possible to build a scientific theory of consciousness? It seems that the project of naturalization contains the inevitable shortcomings which render it impossible to take the first person approaches in cognitive science “seriously”. Hence, the first-person approach to consciousness cannot become the foundation of natural scientific theory of mind as part of nature. Phenomenological approaches to consciousness in the works of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty reject the primacy of the scientific objectivist world picture, claiming that the transcendental consciousness being the condition of possibility of truth and objectivity cannot be seen from the objective point of view. Scientific worldview gives the incomplete picture of consciousness, eliminating its transcendental dimension. However, as I try to show, transcendentalism and naturalism as world projects can contribute into each other, retaining the circular relations between them. Phenomenology can integrate both world projects into holistic picture through phenomenologization, or denaturalization of natural science.
The article discusses the dramatic history of the Tsaritsyno Park and museum-reserve. By the mid-2000s it had become one of Moscow’s iconic places and a zone where urban public culture was shaped. The authors trace the history of this architectural ensemble and park in terms of their role in сity culture and analyse changes in the historical culture of contemporary post-Soviet Moscow. The Tsaritsyno Park and museum exemplify these changes. An unfinished country residence of Catherine II, with a Grand Palace that had stood as a ruin for over 200 years, it has been radically renewed by the Moscow city authorities in what came to be labelled ‘fantasy restoration.’ The palace was finished and now serves as the core of the museum, organised according to a controversial historical policy. Tsaritsyno as a whole became a cultural oddity featuring historical attractions for the public, effectively an ‘eighteenth-century theme park’.
Der Sammelband vereint herausragende Beiträge der Konferenz Welt und Wissenschaft 2017 an der National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moskau.
The reforms of Alexander I in 1801-1812 are considered, two stages are distinguished: the projects of the Secret Committee and the reform of M. Speransky
Gregory of Nyssa at the outset of his ‘Against Eunomius’ cites Eunomius, where the latter speaks about “greater and lesser” activities. However, discussing this quotation later in the treatise, Gregory misinterprets the words of Eunomius. He reads Eunomius as if he applied the principle of ‘the more and the less’ not to activities but to substances. Such interpretation cannot be proved on the basis of what Eunomius actually wrote. Actually, the two opponents (Gregory of Nyssa and Eunomius) used the same Aristotelian position, which prohibits the application of the principle of ‘the more and the less’ to the category of substance. This position was used by the two polemists in order to argue against each other. At the same time, Gregory developed his own philosophical system founded on the principle of ‘the more and the less’ in the course of this polemics with Eunomius.
This article outlines the main threads in the reception of Friedrich Schelling’s ideas by Alexei F. Losev as reflected in his philosophical works. The author singles out three main sets of issues where Schelling’s influence on Losev manifests itself especially vividly: the dialectical interpretation of primordial essence, the conditions for the possibility of language, and the theory of the symbol and philosophy of mythology. The author shows that within Losev’s reception of Schelling’s philosophy, there could be observed a tightly woven solidarity with Schelling’s position, an instrumental appropriation of individual Schellingian concepts, productive misunderstanding, and precise hermeneutic penetration into the semantic interrelations of various semantic clusters within Schelling’s extensive corpus of texts.
This paper is focused on the economic works of the Soviet machine learning pioneer Emmanuel Braverman who published, during the 1970s, a series of papers introducing disequilibrium fixed-price models of the Soviet economy. This highly original theory, developed independently from the Western analyses of disequilibria, proposed some rationing mechanisms capable, under some conditions, to bring a system to the state of equilibrium. However, in a fixed-price economy equilibria are not necessarily optimal or effective, therefore specific observational and analytical procedures aiming at defining the states of the systems’ elements and interventions bringing a system to a better state, had to be invented. This analytical framework was interpreted by Braverman as a “qualitative system of control” of the Soviet economy as a sort of a third-way solution between neoclassical models of spontaneous coordination of autonomous agents and theories of optimal planning. As I argue in this paper, this innovative approach, very different from the styles of reasoning in mathematical economics of his time, was grounded in his work on pattern recognition and was informed by a cybernetic vision of control as information processing and communication in complex systems. This work can be considered as a precursor of the contemporary approaches to algorithmic economic governance.
This article delves into the history of classical philology and the relationship between two prominent classical philologists, one Russian and one German: Alexei Losev (1893–1988) and Bruno Snell (1896–1986). The article shows that both scholars worked at the intersection of philosophy, philology, and history of concepts, and both were interested in the history of ideas, terminology, aesthetics, and mythology and in the language of ancient Greek epics. Unlike Snell, who did not speak Russian and was unable to familiarize himself with Losev’s work on the history of ancient thought, Losev relied on Snell’s work from the mid-1920s until the very end of his life, using Snell to defend his own views on various controversial issues (e.g., reconstructing Homer’s archaic notions of the cosmos, debating the meaning of Heraclitus’ term “ethos,” or discussing the usage of the word sēmainō, and so forth). The subject of analysis is Losev’s 1962 review of the Dictionary of the Early Greek Epic (Lexicon des frühgriechischen Epos), edited by B. Snell, as well as the two scholars’ correspondence in 1959–1960.
This study takes as its departing point the famous medical metaphor, used by Vcio in De mente heroica – that of the university as a hospital. Vico analyzes the medical dimension of heroism not only in De mente: it is discussed in detail in his funeral oration for Angela Cimmino and the preface to Pietro Belli's translation of the Fracastoro's Sifilide, but medical arguments are also spread all through his major works, De constantia and Scienza nuova. It is not a chance that Vico used medical arguments, dealing with a highly aporetical type of a hero – a virtuous woman. This perspective made it appropriate to compare two types of feminine heroes in Vico: Angela Cimmino as a Christian-Platonic hero of the third age of the history of mankind and «Lugrezia romana» as an extraordinary hero of the second. It has been shown, that Vico used opposite rhetorical strategies dealing with these two protagonists: while effacing and glossing over the Livian «Lucretia story», he mobilizes all the resources of his oratory in order to demonstrate the anthropological impossibility of the feminine hero in the age of the mente spiegata.