The main concern of the article is the ways plague was explored and conceptualised by Russian doctors in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Medical theories and epistemologies are accessed in comparison with those employed during the pre-bacteriological era as well as with the European medical ideas of the period.
Catherine ii’s foreign policy has been traditionally considered very successful. She won three wars and incorporated large territories into the Russian Empire making her country one of Europe’s great powers. But arguments for this kind of evaluation miss Catherine’s own perspective. The article argues that the empress failed to reach any of the initial goals she had put forward. Her foreign policy lacked a considered long-term strategy and from the very start was characterized by a series of mistakes. Catherine did turn Russia into a great power but with quite a different reputation from what she initially had planned.
Goldoni’s tragicomedies while being less popular and lesser-studied than his comedies nonetheless provide us with rich material for the study of the genre’s general properties. Goldoni’s tragicomedies fall into two groups: in his plays written in the 1730s, the author but revises conventional repertoire tradition of commedia dell’arte; in his plays of the 1750s, he makes an attempt to reform the genre itself. The latter group forms three peculiar trilogies: passions, sincerities, and hypocrisies. In this part of his creative work, Goldoni remains true to the study of the character as the main object of dramatic representation. However, whereas in comedies, the character is the major impediment to the achievement of the plotline goals, in tragicomedies, it plays the opposite function: leads the dramatic collision to the happy conclusion
The study analyzes the genesis of the modern attitude towards spelling and spelling mistakes in Germany and in Russia in the nineteenth century, showing that both the spelling norms and the relevance of their violation are social constructions to do with major developments of the time such as industrialization, political reaction, proliferation of literacy and mass schooling, and introduction of exams and grading as means to check the upward social mobility via education.
Having found conflicting versions of the past in publications on the history of Soviet medicine, the authors of the article problematized the evidence with which historians work. This led to the study of the production and interaction of statistical and narrative statements of the health care authorities of the 1930s, that is, their reporting and futuristic pipe dreams. The comparison of the medical statistics published in the official directories and the current reporting of medical institutions revealed discrepancies between the published and collected information. Criticism of the official figures by contemporaries gave researchers the opportunity to reveal material and construction technologies of an utopian reality, from the power of which it is difficult to free themselves even to modern researchers.
This paper is focused on the economic works of the Soviet machine learning pioneer Emmanuel Braverman who published, during the 1970s, a series of papers introducing disequilibrium fixed-price models of the Soviet economy. This highly original theory, developed independently from the Western analyses of disequilibria, proposed some rationing mechanisms capable, under some conditions, to bring a system to the state of equilibrium. However, in a fixed-price economy equilibria are not necessarily optimal or effective, therefore specific observational and analytical procedures aiming at defining the states of the systems’ elements and interventions bringing a system to a better state, had to be invented. This analytical framework was interpreted by Braverman as a “qualitative system of control” of the Soviet economy as a sort of a third-way solution between neoclassical models of spontaneous coordination of autonomous agents and theories of optimal planning. As I argue in this paper, this innovative approach, very different from the styles of reasoning in mathematical economics of his time, was grounded in his work on pattern recognition and was informed by a cybernetic vision of control as information processing and communication in complex systems. This work can be considered as a precursor of the contemporary approaches to algorithmic economic governance.
The investigation is dedicated to the image of the medieval academic corporation that was constructed in its graduation processions. It is based on the statutes of the Portuguese university (1431).
This source contains detailed descriptions of required procedures and oaths, clothes, gifts etc. The first part analyzes origins and models of the Portuguese rituals, their relation with the symbolic traditions of other European universities (especially the studium of Bologna). Then it is observed how ‘global’ images of academic representation (that were used by various university corporations) correlated with social and cultural context of Portugal. The cases examined in the second part are: inclusion of the solemn graduation processions in the urban space of Lisbon, clothes as social representation established by the academic corporation in the statutes and by the Royal power (for example, in the Ordenações Afonsinas). So the study investigates how the concepts of corporation’s and estate’s honor were combined in the university status and symbolic practices.
Pavel V. Sokolov’s “Lucis an caliginis theatrum: Theatrical Metaphors in the Early Modern historia literaria” is another one of those essays in this volume which remind readers of the frequently forgotten fact that the metaphor at issue here is present in non-theatrical texts also. Sokolov makes the striking observation that there is an intense discussion of the problem of plagiarism in an age without copyright regulations. The intricacies involved in the question of what is an “original” and what is a (perhaps plagiarized) “copy” were highlighted in contemporary treatises by drawing on the resources offered by theatrical metaphors, especially on one specific semantic strand inherent to this metaphorical complex, namely, the difficulty to decide between what is “real” action and what is (only) an imitation of real action.
According to Russian registry, 42% of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients manifest with chest pain. The aim of current research was to assess myocardial perfusion in IPAH patients with 99mTc-MIBI SPECT, to justify LV/RV ischemia patterns as probable cardialgias substrate in this group. Materials and Methods: 74 patients with confirmed IPAH (70 women), mean age 38,2±9)4, formed group I (with cardialgia, n=36) and group II (without chest symptoms; n=38), all underwent myocardial perfusion CT-corrected 99mTc- MIBI SPECT at rest and after treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test. LV perfusion abnormalities were evaluated using Standard SSS/SDS parameters, RV was assessed visually, IVS/LW and RV/ LV uptake ratios were calculated, in comparison with Holter and six-minute walking test (6MWT) results. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion impairments in IPAH include increased and inhomogeneous MIBI accumulation in dilated RV, impaired IVS perfusion presumably due to its compression by dilated RV, and perfusion defects spreading on stress images, in some cases involving not only IVS, but also adjacent LV segments. Those ischemic patterns are not due to direct damage of epicardial arteries, but due to combination of perfusion/demand disbalance in hypertrophied RV and microcirculatory impairments in compressed IVS, that get worse' with myocardial pressure overload increase during physical exercise. After certain threshold those pathophysiological processes result in chest pain in IPAH patients, and assessment of those impairments as a pain substrate is useful with 99mTc-MIBI SPECT.
The Internet has transformed history and collective memory. Narratives of the past are produced and perceived faster and by larger communities. In other words, the Internet facilitates the most pervasive broadcasting of historical narratives ever known. However, it is not only speed and reach that characterize the impact of the digital revolution on memory cultures. It has also led to a shift from broadcasting to narrowcasting, propelled by a growing number of online memory agents. As a great number of people have access to the Internet, even memory agents with a particular view on the past can find their audience. Thus, the Internet, and social media in particular, facilitates the fragmentation of memory and narrowcasting. To illustrate this point, I studied Russian social media groups dedicated to the adoration of Stalin. Generally, Stalinists are perceived as a homogeneous group sharing a glorified memory of the Soviet leader. However, my analysis reveals that there are at least three types of online Stalinism that promote different narratives and have different agendas. This finding is not merely shedding new light on the persistence of the Stalin cult, but is also theoretically generative, indicating additional conditions for the fragmentation of memories in countries with contested and toxic pasts.
The texts I have revised testify the line developed from the more “naïve” and ontologizing discourse of Ps.-Macarius to the discourse where the unity is spoken of as a phenomenon revealed for intellectual abilities, which suggests an indication of unity in a certain respect and preserves from interpreting this unity as a merge of unified natures. For the latter we can distinguish the strategy of cognition / recognition, which Maximus the Confessor and Symeon the New Theologian adhered to. According to this strategy, by the properties displayed by incandescent iron, we can discern the nature of fire revealed in iron, and, in the same way, we can conclude that human is god (of small letter) on the basis of that he manifests himself as God, that is, exposes the divine features.
I show that Gregory of Nyssa used significant points from a passage of Porphyry’s Isagoge while developing his doctrine of the general and the particular.
L’ouvrage d’Adrian Mackenzie, professeur au Département de sociologie à l’Université de Lancaster, est d’un genre inédit au sein de la littérature émergente, mais encore peu étendue en sciences humaines et sociales, qui explore le fonctionnement du machine learning (ML). Les avancées spectaculaires de cette branche de l’intelligence artificielle (IA) depuis quelques années ont éclipsé les autres approches en la matière et ont soudainement transformé l’IA en un problème social et politique. Plusieurs auteurs ont déjà insisté sur la nécessité de focaliser le regard sur les outils de l’IA, en pointant les limites des travaux qui ne traitent que des effets sociaux des « algorithmes ». Comme le fait remarquer l’anthropologue des sciences et des techniques Nick Seaver, la plupart des travaux sur le sujet s’agitent au sujet des « algorithmes » ou le « big data », en insistant sur leurs effets néfastes, voire catastrophiques, pour la société sans jamais préciser exactement ce qu’ils sont. Le transfert des connaissances et des perspectives entre les spécialistes en IA et en SHS (d’ailleurs dans les deux sens) est pourtant indispensable pour en proposer une critique informée et efficace.
The diversity of the Decembrist projects of the Republican government assumed in Russia has not yet been fully studied. The Decembrists did’t have a common understanding of how to build a new political regime after the coup d'état. And it's not just the differences between P. Pestel and N. Muravyov. M. Orlov and N. Turgenev had their own projects of republics. Pushkin reflected on the ideas of eternal peace in connection with the unification of mankind into a single family (Republic).
Ukrainian science and its terminology in the nineteenth century experienced a number of twists and turns. Divided between two empires, it lacked institutions, scholars pursuing it, and a unified literary language. One could even say that until the late nineteenth century there was a possibility for two communities with two literary languages to emerge - Ruthenian (Habsburg Empire) and Ukrainian (Russian Empire). Eventually, both communities and languages merged. This article tracks the meanderings of this process, arguing that scholarly publications played a crucial role in shaping the standard for the scientific language. The article follows the biography of the naturalist Ivan Verhrats'kyi (1846-1919), the author of the first dictionaries of naturalist terminology in Ruthenian in 1860, a translator and author of textbooks, and the head of the Mathematical-Naturalist-Medical Section of the Shevchenko Society in L'viv. He thus shaped many Ruthenian, and then Ruthenian-Ukrainian scholarly projects. Initially successful with his approach to making the Ruthenian scientific language vernacular, in the 1890s his approach was losing ground to the internationalization of vocabulary and to the growing pressure toward the unification of Ruthenian and Ukrainian. Finally, in the beginning of the twentieth century, Verhrats'kyi became marginalized within the Ukrainian scholarly community. By discussing the history of a minority language within imperial structures, I argue that the media in which scholarly work was published requires special attention. In the Ruthenin-Ukrainian case, they determined the standard for scientific language. Lacking professional journals, Ruthenian scholars published in the 1860s-late 1880s in popular newspapers and in school textbooks, requiring them to use a language that was near to the spoken tongue of the Habsburg province. Once the political situation changed, favoring Ruthenian-Ukrainian unification, and scholarly journals appeared and transgressed the imperial boundary, the favored language had to be transimperial, ousting out the vernacular.
This essay deals with an important chapter in the instrumentalization of “spectacularity” that is situated several decades before the humanist “Renaissance” of theater. Focusing on Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini, who acceded to the papacy under the name of Pius II (1458–1464), the essay examines the “theatrical” restructuring of Piccolomini’s place of birth, Corsignano, renamed Pienza by the Pope himself. The numerous buildings (churches, palaces, public places) that the Pope had erected in his hometown are meant to metaphorically represent his self-image as a human being elected by God with a view to leading profane and sacred history to an apogee never seen before. This self-stylization via the “stage” of the town of Pienza is corroborated, as Ivanova shows, by Pius’s textual self-interpretation in his Commentarii rerum memorabilium quae temporibus suis contingerunt (1463).