The paper examines in some detail Ficino's relation to concept of λόγοι σπερματικοί, literally ‘seminal reasons’, discussed in his Platonic and Scholastic sources. For instance, Ficino uses such terms as semina rerum, semina formarum, rationes seminales, seminarium mundi, ratio seminaria mundi to indicate the links between species in matter and ideas in mind. Ficino supposes that the World-Soul, producing specific forms and powers of lower things, makes them through her own seminal reasons, which remain in touch with celestial and supercelestial entities. Probably, it is Plotinus who legitimates Ficino’s use of the concept of seminal reasons although, historically, it is the concept of Stoicism. Employing ‘seeds’ as a metaphor for ideas, Plotinus criticizes strongly the Stoic concept of seminal reasons, according to which seminal formative principles are corporeal and immanent to the things. Ficino’s use of embryological metaphors and direct analogies between the action of generating force in the human body and in the ‘body’ of the world serves to explain how a purely intelligible essence (the World-Soul) produces material things. In the paper, I argue that the ‘seminal reasons’ as metaphysical intermediaries should be related to other well-known metaphysical intermediaries in Ficino’s philosophy (spiritus, daemones)
The aim of the article is to reveal new concepts and models, systems of argumentation, rethinking of main categories, orientation to new social disciplines and self-reflection in different directions of the world history in the 21st century.
In the 1990s world history relying on the achievements of global and postcolonial studies has been radically transformed and, after several decades of existence in the backyards of historical science, has regained its leading position. Studies conducted in the framework of world history have established new directions that are the result of critical and postmodern revolutions in philosophy (postcolonial criticism, first of all) and rely on a number of concepts and approaches developed in the course of anthropological, linguistic and cultural twists and turns.
Firstly, we mean global and transnational history, offering ways to construct a universal non-Eurocentric world. Secondly, world history, analyzing interactions between world systems and local civilizations (cultural transfer), and complex networks of mutual influences of various historical phenomena. Third, the international history of the formation and development of various international institutions. Fourth, the Big history, which claims not only to encompass "the whole world", but also "all the time", that is, a time beyond the social - "time of the Earth."
The attention of historians is switched to the study of social trajectories, cultural exchanges, multiple identities; there is a fundamental rejection of dualistic oppositions (Europe / third world, metropoly / colony, center / periphery, city / village, modernization / tradition). All variants of the "new world history" are alliances of history with different disciplines, up to the attempts at integration with biology, geology, and cosmology.
The next transformation of the historical science in the 2000s and especially in the last decade is unusually favorable precisely for the development of world history. Firstly, it is the renewed need for broad contexts and large narratives. Secondly, the "spatial turn" in the social sciences and in historiography in particular. Thirdly, the awakened interest of historians in the metaphysics of time and the idea of multitemporality.
The article considers the specificity of urban memory and memory places of cultural heroes in the modern Russian cities. The authors analyze nonconventional memory sites that arise spontaneously and are supported by different agents and communities. The article is focused on the places dedicated to the memory of Viktor Tsoi, leader of the famous Leningrad rock band “Kino” in Moscow and Saint-Petersburg.
This article examines the process of history scientization experience in the USSR based on Porshnev’s concept of international affairs in the period of the Thirty Years' War. The author traces the connection between this concept and structuralism, as well as the roll-call between its historiosophy and T. Hobbes' (the problem of the emergence of sociality), C. Schmitt's (the idea of "friend-enemy") and R. Aron's (sociology of international relationships) theories. In the course of the analysis of the argumentative structure of natural-science implication, B.F. Porshnev's theory (concepts of "synchrony" and "diachrony" of the historical process, the concept of "historical experiment"), which is characterized as axiomatic, the aurhor concludes that Porshnev's persistent desire for scientific rigor and rigidity of the conceptual-categorical apparatus leads to the opposite effect - the metaphorization of language.
The article considers the major approaches towards the integration of philosophical and scientific perspectives on the nature and functioning of subjective consciousness. The project of naturalization of phenomenology is considered as an account of methodological unification of cognitive science and philosophy based on first-person perspective. This alliance is generally thought as an attempt to incorporate the explanatory models of phenomenology into the natural scientific worldview. The proponents of this approach, such as F. Varela, confirm that it can overcome the explanatory gap between the subjective first-person qualitative phenomenological data and third-person neurophysiological data, or at least it can contribute to the project of scientifically informed philosophy of mind, as in S. Gallagher’s front load phenomenology. But is it really possible to build a scientific theory of consciousness? It seems that the project of naturalization contains the inevitable shortcomings which render it impossible to take the first person approaches in cognitive science “seriously”. Hence, the first-person approach to consciousness cannot become the foundation of natural scientific theory of mind as part of nature. Phenomenological approaches to consciousness in the works of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty reject the primacy of the scientific objectivist world picture, claiming that the transcendental consciousness being the condition of possibility of truth and objectivity cannot be seen from the objective point of view. Scientific worldview gives the incomplete picture of consciousness, eliminating its transcendental dimension. However, as I try to show, transcendentalism and naturalism as world projects can contribute into each other, retaining the circular relations between them. Phenomenology can integrate both world projects into holistic picture through phenomenologization, or denaturalization of natural science.
The article discusses the dramatic history of the Tsaritsyno Park and museum-reserve. By the mid-2000s it had become one of Moscow’s iconic places and a zone where urban public culture was shaped. The authors trace the history of this architectural ensemble and park in terms of their role in сity culture and analyse changes in the historical culture of contemporary post-Soviet Moscow. The Tsaritsyno Park and museum exemplify these changes. An unfinished country residence of Catherine II, with a Grand Palace that had stood as a ruin for over 200 years, it has been radically renewed by the Moscow city authorities in what came to be labelled ‘fantasy restoration.’ The palace was finished and now serves as the core of the museum, organised according to a controversial historical policy. Tsaritsyno as a whole became a cultural oddity featuring historical attractions for the public, effectively an ‘eighteenth-century theme park’.
Der Sammelband vereint herausragende Beiträge der Konferenz Welt und Wissenschaft 2017 an der National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moskau.
The reforms of Alexander I in 1801-1812 are considered, two stages are distinguished: the projects of the Secret Committee and the reform of M. Speransky
Gregory of Nyssa at the outset of his ‘Against Eunomius’ cites Eunomius, where the latter speaks about “greater and lesser” activities. However, discussing this quotation later in the treatise, Gregory misinterprets the words of Eunomius. He reads Eunomius as if he applied the principle of ‘the more and the less’ not to activities but to substances. Such interpretation cannot be proved on the basis of what Eunomius actually wrote. Actually, the two opponents (Gregory of Nyssa and Eunomius) used the same Aristotelian position, which prohibits the application of the principle of ‘the more and the less’ to the category of substance. This position was used by the two polemists in order to argue against each other. At the same time, Gregory developed his own philosophical system founded on the principle of ‘the more and the less’ in the course of this polemics with Eunomius.
This article outlines the main threads in the reception of Friedrich Schelling’s ideas by Alexei F. Losev as reflected in his philosophical works. The author singles out three main sets of issues where Schelling’s influence on Losev manifests itself especially vividly: the dialectical interpretation of primordial essence, the conditions for the possibility of language, and the theory of the symbol and philosophy of mythology. The author shows that within Losev’s reception of Schelling’s philosophy, there could be observed a tightly woven solidarity with Schelling’s position, an instrumental appropriation of individual Schellingian concepts, productive misunderstanding, and precise hermeneutic penetration into the semantic interrelations of various semantic clusters within Schelling’s extensive corpus of texts.
This paper is focused on the economic works of the Soviet machine learning pioneer Emmanuel Braverman who published, during the 1970s, a series of papers introducing disequilibrium fixed-price models of the Soviet economy. This highly original theory, developed independently from the Western analyses of disequilibria, proposed some rationing mechanisms capable, under some conditions, to bring a system to the state of equilibrium. However, in a fixed-price economy equilibria are not necessarily optimal or effective, therefore specific observational and analytical procedures aiming at defining the states of the systems’ elements and interventions bringing a system to a better state, had to be invented. This analytical framework was interpreted by Braverman as a “qualitative system of control” of the Soviet economy as a sort of a third-way solution between neoclassical models of spontaneous coordination of autonomous agents and theories of optimal planning. As I argue in this paper, this innovative approach, very different from the styles of reasoning in mathematical economics of his time, was grounded in his work on pattern recognition and was informed by a cybernetic vision of control as information processing and communication in complex systems. This work can be considered as a precursor of the contemporary approaches to algorithmic economic governance.
This article delves into the history of classical philology and the relationship between two prominent classical philologists, one Russian and one German: Alexei Losev (1893–1988) and Bruno Snell (1896–1986). The article shows that both scholars worked at the intersection of philosophy, philology, and history of concepts, and both were interested in the history of ideas, terminology, aesthetics, and mythology and in the language of ancient Greek epics. Unlike Snell, who did not speak Russian and was unable to familiarize himself with Losev’s work on the history of ancient thought, Losev relied on Snell’s work from the mid-1920s until the very end of his life, using Snell to defend his own views on various controversial issues (e.g., reconstructing Homer’s archaic notions of the cosmos, debating the meaning of Heraclitus’ term “ethos,” or discussing the usage of the word sēmainō, and so forth). The subject of analysis is Losev’s 1962 review of the Dictionary of the Early Greek Epic (Lexicon des frühgriechischen Epos), edited by B. Snell, as well as the two scholars’ correspondence in 1959–1960.
This study takes as its departing point the famous medical metaphor, used by Vcio in De mente heroica – that of the university as a hospital. Vico analyzes the medical dimension of heroism not only in De mente: it is discussed in detail in his funeral oration for Angela Cimmino and the preface to Pietro Belli's translation of the Fracastoro's Sifilide, but medical arguments are also spread all through his major works, De constantia and Scienza nuova. It is not a chance that Vico used medical arguments, dealing with a highly aporetical type of a hero – a virtuous woman. This perspective made it appropriate to compare two types of feminine heroes in Vico: Angela Cimmino as a Christian-Platonic hero of the third age of the history of mankind and «Lugrezia romana» as an extraordinary hero of the second. It has been shown, that Vico used opposite rhetorical strategies dealing with these two protagonists: while effacing and glossing over the Livian «Lucretia story», he mobilizes all the resources of his oratory in order to demonstrate the anthropological impossibility of the feminine hero in the age of the mente spiegata.
Failed attempts to create a unified cultural and literary sphere in the ‘second world’ are also at the centre of Rossen Djagalov’s contribution, which deals with two special features of the institutionalization of literature in the Soviet bloc: the unusual formats in which the new cultural empire was to be moulded, and the frequent substitution of individuals with appropriate life histories for office holders with clearly defined functions. The starting point of the researcher’s analysis of archival materials is that the bureaucracy of Soviet post- war internationalism was literature-centred and, as such, it looked to create institutions that would promote the vision of a unity of cultures (the ‘People’s Republic of Letters’) and not just of a political bloc. Such institutions were international in their very basis, a good example being the International Congress of Writers from People’s Democracies that was planned for July 1948. Even though (or possibly because) the event never took place, the detailed plans for its organization offer an excellent idea of how the Soviet authorities envisioned the ideal cultural cooperation between the satellites and the centre in that special format that was on the border between a strictly organized, formal procedure and informal, personal communication. The congress was supposed to be the platform for subsequent publications on matters pertaining to the literary culture of the ‘Second World’; it was also to become the seal of approval for those who would be invited and would thus become the ‘offi cial masters’ of the new literature in their respective countries. The plans for the congress, in Rossen Djagalov’s view, mark a point of transition from the cosmopolitanism of 1930s Moscow and the cultural pan- Slavism of the earlier 1940s to a new form of cultural internationalism, which would be based on a format habitually associated with a free exchange of opinions, although in this case it was, of course, to be carefully orchestrated and strictly controlled.
In this article I study medieval concepts of locus studii: how they were constructed, proclaimed and discussed by social actors before producing any real university space in the first Iberian higher schools. I mark out three general types of university spatial concepts in early juridical documents from the universities of Palencia, Salamanca, Lisbon-Coimbra and Lleida. The first group is connected to the universal locale of the studium: “light of science” and scholars’ privileges should extend over the whole Christian world. In political rhetoric “universal” locus studii (that was based on the authorities of the Pope or Emperor) was imitated by temporal sovereigns. The second type of loci studii is a city. Such conceptions (including civitas regia) considered urban space as integrated and homogeneous place of university activity leaving municipal law out of account. The third group described locus limitadus, a special university quarter. In the last part of my article I observe the use of spatial concepts in social and legal practices of Iberian medieval university corporations/
This article is focused on the interpretation by Vico of two particular categories of the Roman law: actio praescriptis verbis and fictio juris. Drawing on the legal humanist tradition and the 17th century juridical thought (Jacopo Cuiacio, Antoine Favre, Andrea Alciato, François Hotman, Peter Müller), Vico examines the ways of resolving the tension between jus civile and practical life in the ancient Roman jurisprudence. It has been shown that, whereas in case of actio praescriptis verbis this contradiction is overcome by appealing to the facticity as such independently from the sacred legal formulas, in that of fictio juris a kind of a modal shift takes place, actualizing the potential of the “als ob” logic.